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Old 09-14-2012, 04:46 AM   #1 (permalink)
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APBT History

Subject: History of the APBT Thu 29 May 2008 - 19:37
#
Introduction
# Image The American Pit Bull Terrier (APBT) is a descendent of the original English bull-baiting Bulldog and has historically been bred with working/performance goals in mind. The challenge of describing the American Pit Bull Terrier inevitably invites a long sequence of superlatives. The APBT is a supremely athletic, highly versatile, adaptive, gushingly affectionate, eager-to-please, all-around family dog. In courage, resolve, indefatigableness, indifference to pain, and stubborn perseverance in overcoming any challenge, the APBT has no equal in the canine world. Although the APBT was once used as a national symbol of courage and pride, the breed is largely misunderstood today.

Even though the APBT has historically been bred to excel in combat with other dogs, a well-bred APBT has a rock-steady temperament and, contrary to popular belief, is NOT inherently aggressive towards humans. However, as adults, some APBTs may show aggression towards other dogs. This fact, along with the APBT's strength and determination, should be taken into account when considering if the APBT is the right breed for you. As with any companion dog, socialization and consistent fair-minded training is a must from a very early age.

Although some APBTs may be suspicious of strangers, as most dogs are, and will protect loved ones if necessary, in general they do not excel in protection/guard work. If your main reason for getting a dog is for protection/guard work, perhaps a Rottweiler, German Shephard, or a Doberman Pinscher would suit you better. Or, if you really like the bulldog phenotype, look into an American Bulldog.

There are several types of dogs that are commonly called "Pit Bulls." Primarly, these are the American Pit Bull Terrier, the American Staffordshire Terrier (AST), and the Staffordshire Bull Terrier (SBT). All three of these dogs share common ancestry but have been subsequently bred emphasizing different breeding criteria. Due to this divergence, some people feel that they are now different breeds. Others choose to view them as different "strains" of the same breed. Neither view is wrong, as it comes down to how one defines what a "breed" is. This FAQ is primarily about the American Pit Bull Terrier, specifically those dogs of relatively recent game-bred ancestry. Some of the material may ring true for the AST and the SBT, but the authors are biased toward the APBT from performance-bred lines, and this bias will be clear throughout the FAQ.
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Old 09-14-2012, 04:46 AM   #2 (permalink)
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History
Among enthusiasts, the history of the APBT is as controversial as the breed itself is among the misled public. The breed's history is a recurrent subject of lively debate in the magazines devoted to the breed. In fact, this FAQ was hotly debated among the contributors before it reached its final form, and still everyone isn't 100% happy!

Original Bulldog chained in a barn Although the precise origin of the APBT is not known, we can reliably trace its roots back at least one hundred and fifty years or so [1] to England. During the late 18th and early 19th centuries the sport of bull-baiting was very much alive and dogs were bred to excel in this endeavor. The same type of dog was also used by hunters to catch game and by butchers and farmers to bring down unruly cattle. These dogs were called "bulldogs." Historically, the word "Bulldog" did not mean a specific breed of dog per se, but rather it was applied to descendants of the ancient Mastiff- type dogs that excelled in the task of bull-baiting. The "bulldogs" of yore were much different from, and should not be confused with, the loveable clowns of the show ring today. The old, performance-bred, working bulldog was closer in phenotype and spirit to the APBT and/or the modern American Bulldog. The use of the word "bulldog" applied to APBT's persists even today among APBT fanciers.


Crib and Rosa by Abraham Cooper, 1817 When bull-baiting was outlawed in England in 1835 the sport of matching two dogs against one another in combat rose in popularity to fill the void. One point of contention about the history of the APBT is whether these pit fighting dogs were essentially a new breed of dog specially created for this popular pastime. Some authors, notably Richard Stratton, have theorized that the APBT is essentially the same breed as the Renaissiance bull-baiting dogs, largely unmixed with any other kind of dog, specifically terriers. These authors consider the present name, American Pit Bull Terrier, a double misnomer, since, in their view, the breed is not of American origin and is not a terrier. They explain the popular attribution of the breed's origin to a cross between bull-baiters and terriers as a retrospective confusion with the breeding history of the English Bull Terrier, which is a totally distinct breed that was never successful at pit fighting but whose origin is well-documented. Other authors who have researched the topic, such as Dr. Carl Semencic, argue that the APBT is indeed the product of a cross between bull-baiting dogs and terriers and that the breed simply did not exist in its current form during the Renaissance. They would argue that when we think of the terriers in the APBT's ancestry, we should not envision modern-day show dogs like Yorkshire Terriers, but instead working terriers (probably now extinct) that were bred for great tenacity in hunting. The problem of proof, which hangs over the discussion of any early breed history, is compounded in this case by the extreme secrecy of the breeders of pit dogs. In the 19th century pedigrees, if committed to paper at all, were not divulged, since every breeder feared letting his rivals in on the secrets of his success and replicating it. In any case, by no later than the mid-19th century, the breed had acquired all of the essential characteristics for which it is still prized today: its awesome athletic abilities, its peerless gameness, and its easy-going temperament.


Teenagers and their family Pit sometime around the turn of the century The immediate ancestors of the APBT were Irish and English pit fighting dogs imported to the States in the mid-19th century. Once in the United States, the breed diverged slightly from what was being produced back in England and Ireland. In America, where these dogs were used not only as pit fighters, but also as catch dogs (i.e., for forcibly retrieving stray hogs and cattle) and as guardians of family, the breeders started producing a slightly larger, leggier dog. However, this gain in size and weight was small until very recently. The Old Family Dogs in 19th century Ireland were rarely above 25 lbs., and 15-lb. dogs were not uncommon. In American books on the breed from the early part of this century, it is rare to find a specimen over 50 lbs. (with a few notable exceptions). From 1900 to 1975 or so, there was probably a very small and gradual increment in the average weight of APBTs over the years, without any corresponding loss in performance abilities. But now that the vast majority of APBTs are no longer performance-bred to the traditional pit standard (understandably, since the traditional performance test, the pit contest itself, is now a felony), the American axiom of "Bigger is Better" has taken over in the breeding practices of the many neophyte breeders who joined the bandwagon of the dog's popularity in the 1980s. This has resulted in a ballooning of the average size of APBTs in the last 15 years--a harmful phenomenon for the breed, in our opinion. Another, less visible modification of the breed since the 19th century was the selective intensification of genetically programmed fighting styles (such as front-end specialists, stifle specialists, etc.), as performance breeding became more sophisticated under competitive pressures. In spite of these changes, there has been a remarkable continuity in the breed for more than a century. Photos from a century ago show dogs indistinguishable from the dogs being bred today. Although, as in any performance breed, you will find a certain lateral (synchronic) variability in phenotype across different lines, you will nevertheless find uncanny chronological continuity in these types across decades. There are photos of pit dogs from the 1860s that are phenotypically (and, to judge by contemporary descriptions of pit matches, constitutionally) identical to the APBTs of today.

Throughout the 19th century, these dogs were known by a variety of names. "Pit Terriers", "Pit Bull Terriers", "Half and Half's", "Staffordshire Fighting Dogs", "Old Family Dogs"(the Irish name), "Yankee Terriers"(the Northern name), and "Rebel Terriers"(the Southern name) to name a few. In 1898, a man by the name of Chauncy Bennet formed the United Kennel Club (UKC) for the sole purpose of registering "Pit Bull Terriers" as the American Kennel Club wanted nothing to do with them. Originally, he added the word "American" to the name and dropped "Pit". This didn't please all of the people so later the word "Pit" was added back to the name in parentheses as a compromise. The parentheses were then removed from the name about 15 years ago. All other breeds that are registered with UKC were accepted into the UKC after the APBT. Another registry of APBTs is the American Dog Breeders Association (ADBA) which was started in September, 1909 by Guy McCord, a close friend of John P. Colby. Now under the stewardship of the Greenwood family, the ADBA continues to register only APBTs and is more in tune with the APBT as a breed than the UKC. The ADBA does sponsor conformations shows, but more importantly, it sponsors weight pulling competitions which test a dogs strength, stamina, and heart. It also publishes a quarterly magazine dedicated to the APBT called the American Pit Bull Terrier Gazette (see the "References" section). The authors feel that the ADBA is now the flagship registry of APBT as it is doing more to preserve the original characteristics of the breed.

The Lovable Petey and the rest of Our Gang In 1936, thanks to "Pete the Pup" in the "Lil Rascals" and "Our Gang" who familiarized a wider audience with the APBT, the AKC jumped on the bandwagon and registered the breed as the "Staffordshire Terrier". This name was changed to "American Staffordshire Terrier" (AST) in 1972 to distinguish it from its smaller, "froggier", English cousin the Staffordshire Bull Terrier. In 1936, for all intents and purposes, the AKC, UKC, and ADBA version of the "Pit Bull" were identical since the original AKC stock came from pit fighting dogs, which were UKC and ADBA registered. During this time period, and the years that preceded it, the APBT was a well-liked dog in America. At this time the APBT was considered an ideal family pet. Because of his fun-loving, forgiving temperament, the breed was rightly considered an excellent dog for families with small children. Even if most of them couldn't identify the breed by name, kids of the Lil Rascals generation wanted a companion just like "Pete the Pup". During the First World War, there was an American propaganda poster that represented the rival European nations with their national dogs dressed in military uniforms; and in the center representing the United States was an APBT declaring in a caption below: "I'm neutral, but not afraid of any of them."

Since 1936, due to different breeding goals, the American Staffordshire Terrier and the American Pit Bull Terrier have diverged in both phenotype and spirit/temperament, although both, ideally, continue to have in common an easy-going, friendly disposition. [2] Some folks in the fancy feel that after 60 years of breeding for different goals, these two dogs are now entirely different breeds. Other people choose to view them as two different strains of the same breed (working and show). Either way, the gap continues to widen as breeders from both sides of the fence consider it undesirable to interbreed the two. To the untrained eye, ASTs may look more impressive and fearsome, with a larger and more blocky head, with bulging jaw muscles, a wider chest and thicker neck. In general, however, they aren't nearly as "game" or athletic as game-bred APBTs. Because of the standardization of their conformation for show purposes, ASTs tend to look alike, to a much greater degree than APBTs do. APBTs have a much wider phenotypical range, since the primary breeding goal, until fairly recently, has been not to produce a dog with a certain "look" but to produce one capable of winning pit contests, in which the looks of a dog counted for nothing. There are some game-bred APBTs that are practically indistinguishable from typical ASTs, but in general they are leaner, leggier, and lighter on their toes and have more stamina, agility, speed, and explosive power.

Following the second World War, until the early 1980s, the APBT lapsed into relative obscurity. But those devoted few who knew the breed knew it in intimate detail. These devotees typically knew much more about their dogs' ancestry than about their own--they were often able to recite pedigrees back six or eight generations. When APBTs became popular with the public around 1980, nefarious individuals with little or no knowledge of the breed started to own and breed them and predictably, problems started to crop up. Many of these newcomers did not adhere to the traditional breeding goals of the old-time APBT breeders. In typical backyard fashion they began randomly breeding dogs in order to mass produce puppies as profitable commodities. Worse, some unscrupulous neophytes started selecting dogs for exactly the opposite criteria that had prevailed up to then: they began selectively breeding dogs for the trait of human aggressiveness. Before long, individuals who shouldn't have been allowed near a gold fish were owning and producing poorly bred, human-aggressive "Pit Bulls" for a mass market. This, coupled with the media's propensity for over-simplification and sensationalization, gave rise to the anti-"Pit Bull" hysteria that continues to this day. It should go without saying that, especially with this breed, you should avoid backyard breeders. Find a breeder with a national reputation; investigate, for example, the breeders who advertise in the breed's flagship magazine, The American Pit Bull Terrier Gazette. In spite of the introduction of some bad breeding practices in the last 15 years or so, the vast majority of APBTs remain very human-friendly. The American Canine Temperament Testing Association, which sponsors tests for temperament titles for dogs, reported that 95% of all APBTs that take the test pass, compared with a 77% passing rate for all breeds on average. The APBT's passing rate was the fourth highest of all the breeds tested.

Today, the APBT is still used (underground and illegally) as a fighting dog in the United States; pit matches also take place in other countries where there are no laws or where the existing laws are not enforced. However, the vast majority of APBT's--even within the kennels of breeders who breed for fighting ability--never see any action in the pit. Instead they are loyal, loving, companion dogs and family pets. One activity that has really grown in popularity among APBT fanciers is weight pulling contests. Weight-pulls retain something of the spirit of competition of the pit fighting world, but without the blood or sorrow. The APBT is ideally suited for these contests, in which the refusal to quit counts for as much as brute strength. Currently, APBTs hold world records in several weight classes. I have seen one 70-lb. APBT pull a mini-van! Another activity that the APBT is ideally suited for is agility competition, where its athleticism and determination can be widely appreciated. Some APBTs have been trained and done well in Schutzhund sport; these dogs, however, are more the exception than the rule (see the section on APBT's and protection/guard work).

[1]- Actually one can trace the "Bulldog" history back further than that, but for this document that's far enough. Readers who are interested in more information on the history of the breed are encouraged to refer to Dr. Carl Semencic's book "The World of Fighting Dogs".

[2]- Through out this document, unless otherwise noted, when we refer to the American Pit Bull Terrier(APBT), we are referring to the ADBA version which is more likely to be bred to the traditional APBT breeding standards. In general, the UKC version of the APBT is now being bred mostly for looks alone, and thus has much in common with the AKC AST.
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Old 09-14-2012, 04:49 AM   #3 (permalink)
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Subject: The origin of the APBT Thu 29 May 2008 - 19:35
The Pit Bull Terrier was made from the Bulldog and the old English White Terrier. It has been said that a cross of the old Spanish Pointer weas used, but this has never been confirmed to be authentic. The exact proportion in which each breed was used to produce the Pit Bull Terrier is not known.

During the Nineteenth Century when bull-baiting and dog-fighting were active sports, the bulldog was found to be too slow for pit purposes, hence the need for a dog with more speed and a good strong, punishing jaw.

This new breed met with success and was much superior to the bulldog for fighting in the pit. One of the first strains that was produced was noted for its gameness and fighting ability. One sire and his son were reputed to have won many battles and were undefeated.

After the bill was passed declaring bull-baiting and dog-fighting illegal, the Pit Bull Terrier was associated with the smartly attired young man about town, the prizefighters and tavern keepers.

Most of the impromptu combats were staged in cellars of the taverns or at some secluded rendezvous in a small village.

Little change has come about in the appearance of the Pit Bull Terrier. The most noticeable change that has appeared is the head. The present dogs lean more to the Terrier type than the bulldog type as was common among the early dogs of the nineteenth century.

The writer has seen strong characteristics crop out from time to time divulging their ancestors. The more common characteristics are bench legs, screw tail, undershot jaw and low station. Yet there has been produced an exact replica of the old English White Terrier, in the hide of a Pit Bull Terrier. Although these characteristics seldom appear, they are more commonly found in dogs that have been inbred.

~-~



In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, dog fighting and bull-baiting were very active sports in England. During the Nineteenth century, England passed a bill making the sports illegal. Soon after this bill was passed the Pit Bull Terrier started to disappear from the public eye, as no one felt a though he wanted to be known as the owner of a battle-scarred pit dog, due to the penalty the law prescribed for any one found guilty of fighting dogs in the pit. A few years later the breed seemed to revive and was given the name of the Staffordshire Terrier, by which the breed is still known today in England. However, when dog fighting was introduced into the United States, the old name of the Pit Bull Terrier stuck with the breed and it is the belief of the author that they will never be known by any name other than the American Pit Bull Terrier.

When the Pit Bull Terrier was intorduced into America, he was more commonly found to be owned by prize fighters, saloon keepers and habitues, sporting men and the like. From the start the breed earned an unjust reputation due to his fighting ability and the character of the owner. To this day he is still trying to live down an unjust and undeserved reputation.

At about the turn of the Twentieth Century the breed was fast becoming popular and the pit dog found his way into the homes of men from all walks of life. Dog magazines carried ads and illustrations of dogs that had earned a reputation in the pit and through this advertising many dogs were sold and fought for large sums of money.

Much of this popularity was due to the notoriety given Harry Krieger and his dog, "Crib," Cockney Charlie and his dog "Pilot," and Johnnie McDonald's "Grip," more commonly known as the Gas Housedog; McGough's "Bob," better known as "Bob, the Fool"; Connor's Bismark, "Rock and Rye," and many other famous dogs with a reputation proven in the pit.

Inasmuch as dog-fighting is an illegal sport, thousands of dollars are wagered each year at the pitside. As long as these dogs are bred, there will be pit contests to prove who owns the better fighting dog.

A few of the many fanciers of the past and present who were active in fighting and producing game pit dogs are: Tom O'Rourke, Hector Connor, Pat McDevitt, Johnnie McDonald, Ted Timoney, John Galvin, J. Edwards, Con Reardon, Jack Burke, the Farmer Brothers, Con Feely, Mike Redican, Noonan, Semmes, John P. Colby, George Armitage, William Shipley, Jack Wolf and Tom McGough. A few of the present day men that have been successful in producing game pit dogs are: Pete Donovan, Earl Tudor, Jim Williams, Al Brown, J. M. Corrington, Ham Morris, Joe Corvino, Walter Komosinski, Harry Turner, C. P. Delaney, Charles Smith and Harry Clark.

At the present writing the breed is advancing rapidly in popularity. The author predicts that within a few years there will be such a demand for game pit dogs for sporting purposes, that it will be beyond the production. Due to the fact that this breed has weathered the so-called depression that prevailed, is proof enough that there is a market for them, even though they have a bad reputation in the dog world. Dog fighting in the past two years has increased over fifty per cent as compared with the previous two years. Which proves that the sport still holds a fascination. New faces, new dogs, new breeders gain recognition each year, and the game is on an upward trend that will see no equal.
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Old 09-14-2012, 04:50 AM   #4 (permalink)
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A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE AMERICAN PIT BULL TERRIER

In order to give a full history of this breed we must first go back to the early 19th century, prior to the existence of the cross bred bulldog and terrier. It was the cross between the Bulldog and the terrier that resulted in the Staffordshire Terrier, which was originally called the Bull-and-Terrier Dog, Half, and Half, and also the Pit Dog or Pit Bullterrier. Later, it became known in England as the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and is the dog breed that ultimately started the American Staffordshire and American Pit Bull Terrier breeds.

Until the early part of the 19th century, the Bulldog was bred in England for the purpose of bull baiting. Bull baiting was a cruel sport in which a tethered bull, brought to market for slaughter would be attacked by bulldogs with the notion that the meat would be tenderized, prior to slaughter, by the bulldog's attacks. The contention that the meat was tenderized during these brutal bouts was not based on any fact and indeed served no real purpose other than to line the pockets of the men who trained their dogs to participate in these sadistic blood-matches. During these matches the dog would assault the bull, avoid the stomping hooves and slashing horns, grab on to a nose or ear, and hang on until the bull collapsed from exhaustion or lack of oxygen. Many of the dogs were crushed by stomping hooves, disembowelled by slashing horns, and tossed through the air causing broken legs, backs, and skulls when they hit the ground.

On the whole, both the dogs and the bulls suffered greatly. Every class of person from commoners to royalty enjoyed these spectacles as a means to divert themselves from the violence and diseases of their day to day lives. Mass public outcry finally forced Parliament to take a stand and ban the practice of bull baiting in 1835.

Once bull baiting was banned, dog breeders who appreciated the fierceness, courage, and tenacity of the bull dogs turned their attentions to breeding dogs for the purpose of dog fighting. They began with the bull dog, mixed in some terrier blood for gameness, and produced the Bull and Terrier, a dog that met all of their expectations. The Bull and Terrier was bred for aggression to other dogs, unrelenting bravery, a high pain threshold, a superior blood clotting ability to aid him when wounded, a willingness to fight to the end, and an unmatched affection for people.

These attributes were exploited by man, and these dogs were encouraged to fight each other in pits. The outcome of these matches depended upon the challenge issued. Sometimes the fight lasted until one dog was either pinned or chased from the pit, and other times the fight was not to be stopped until one of the dogs was dead. In any case, this is an example of man abusing the gift of the dog as a loyal companion by allowing these animals to suffer injury in order to gain the praise of their masters. An interesting fact to mention here is that the original breeders of these fighting dogs held one attribute to be absolutely necessary, devotion to people. If a pit dog ever turned on, bit, or showed aggression to a human it was put down immediately. This led to the breeds overwhelming people friendly personality and truly kept the breed from being an outright danger to man.

These dogs found their way into America as around 1870, as all-around farm dogs and frontier guardians. They excelled in their service to mankind on the frontier and soon earned a reputation as one of the finest dogs a man could own. To increase the dog’s usefulness in relation to his new frontier lifestyle, breeders of the Bull and Terrier began to selectively breed for a larger dog. The Bull and Terrier dog became adept at just about anything he was tasked with to include: herding, livestock protection, vermin removal, weight pulling, watchdog, and family companion. In all, things were good for this breed as it was loved and respected as a true family companion and faultless dog. Eventually, these dogs began to assume other names such as Pit Dog, the Pit Bull Terrier, the American Bull Terrier, and even the Yankee Terrier.

The United Kennel Club recognized the Bull and Terrier Dog as the American Pit Bull Terrier in 1898. Buster Brown shoes put it's mascot in every shoe with the image of Tige, an American Pit Bull Terrier, to enhance its image as a sturdy, dependable shoe. RCA used Nipper, a pit bull of unknown ancestry, to illustrate the clarity of sound emulating from it's phonograph by showing the pit bull being fooled into thinking he was actually hearing his master's voice and not a recording. The breed was also used to illustrate American neutrality without fear in 1914, the toughness of Levi jeans, and as a "defender of Old Glory". Then in 1917 came Sgt. Stubby, a pit bull of unknown descent, who became a war hero for saving several soldiers lives, and capturing a German spy, while serving in the trenches of France with the 26th Yankee Division. About two decades later came a sturdy white pooch with a patch over one eye named Petey, who played alongside a lovable bunch of kids called 'The Little Rascals'. The American Pit Bull Terrier was now an international icon representing America to the world. The dog’s popularity was at its highest and people recognized the American Pit Bull Terrier as the sturdy, strong, and lovable animal that it is.

The AKC shunned breeds called "pit bulls" until 1936, when it recognized the American Pit-bull Terrier under the alias Staffordshire Terrier, named after the miners of Staffordshire, England, who had a hand in the development of the original English fighting breed. Originally, 50 Staffordshire Terriers were accepted into the AKC. One of the original dogs was none other than the famous Petey, from the Little Rascals. The name was changed in 1972 to the American Staffordshire Terrier to distinguish the breed from the Staffordshire Bull Terrier of England, the ancestor to the American dogs, which was recognized by the AKC in 1974. The British version of the dog is 14-18 inches tall at the shoulder and weighs up to 45 pounds. The American cousin is 18-19 inches at the shoulder and weighs up to 80 pounds. The UKC's American Pit Bull Terrier is preferred to range from 30-60 pounds with the females generally, but not necessarily, smaller than the males.

Since acceptance into the AKC, the American Staffordshire Terrier breed of dog has been bred separately from the UKC's American Pit Bull Terrier. This has resulted in two separate breeds. This can get confusing, so let me explain. The AKC does not recognize the American Pit Bull terrier as a pure bred dog. The only bull terrier breeds recognized by the AKC are the Staffordshire Bull Terrier, and the American Staffordshire Terrier. On the other hand, the UKC does recognize the AKC's American Staffordshire Terrier as an American Pit Bull Terrier and allows them to be registered with the UKC. Confusing? Yes. This subject is the source of much dispute, but as much as I try to avoid controversy about which breed is which, I guarantee you that I will offend someone

Today the American Staffordshire Terrier and American Pit Bull Terrier are wonderful family dogs, capable of anything their owner’s demand of them. Neglect and bad training has been a cause for severe damage to the reputation of the breed and has resulted in the deaths and mutilations of a few people. There is a growing movement around the world to improve the ownership of these dogs and to educate people as to the true value these creatures hold as companions to people.

The Bull Terrier breed has a long history as a dog of the common man, and it is from his basic stock that the AKC's American Staffordshire and Staffordshire Terriers, and the UKC's American Pit Bull Terrier developed. Throughout history man has depended upon his dog for many things; protection, hunting, and most importantly companionship. The Bull Terrier breed of dog has displayed the highest level of service to mankind yet society has labelled him a killer and a vicious beast who's only reward for his sacrifices should be banishment and death.
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